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Developing sustainable cocoa production systems

Cocoa and chocolate

No one can pinpoint exactly where cocoa originates from, or for how long people have been growing it. It is believed to have originated from several localities in the area between the foot of the Andes and the upper reaches of the Amazon, in South America. We do know that it was being grown in the region at least 1000 years ago by the Maya Indians, who found that when roasted, the seeds (or beans) of the cocoa tree produced an aroma so divine, they believed the tree was a gift from the god Quetzacoatl. From the roasted beans, they made a drink, often used in ceremonies and rituals, called xocolatl, from which the word 'chocolate' is derived.

More than a millennium later, chocolate is big business. The USA alone, the world's biggest consumer, eats between 1 and 1.4 million tonnes of chocolate every year, and the global trade in confectionery, of which chocolate has the lion's share, is estimated at about US$ 80 billion per year. Cocoa has become a vital export crop for many countries, particularly in West Africa. It is also a major foreign exchange earner for some Central and South American countries and, to a lesser extent, for South and Southeast Asia.

The chocolate tree

The cocoa tree belongs to the genus Theobroma, meaning 'food of the Gods' in Greek. There are several species in this genus, but only one, Theobroma cacao, is grown commercially. It is widely grown in West Africa, Central and South America, and South and Southeast Asia. Some is grown on estates, but the vast majority (estimates vary from 70 to 90%), is grown by smallholder farmers cultivating less than 3 hectares. Cocoa is, ecologically speaking, a forest plant, and has evolved to grow under shady conditions. Most of it is now grown under shade trees including: (i) forest trees left standing after the initial clearance of land; (ii) food crops including plantain; herbaceous plants and shrubs; and (iii) specially planted shade trees. Some cocoa, particularly in Côte d'Ivoire, is grown in direct sunlight, and in fact, under this system the trees are more productive in the short term. However, crop management requires much higher inputs, partly because some insect pests and weeds are much more problematic than in shady conditions, and production is lower in the long term.

Cocoa in crisis

The cocoa market is notoriously volatile and world prices have plummeted over the last 20 years, dropping from a high of about US$ 4000/ mt in 1979, to the current levels of about US$ 880/ mt (October 2000). This, combined with other factors, such as the high cost and limited availability of inputs and a lack of workable credit or loan facilities in many areas has led to, at best, minimal profit margins for small farmers. This in turn has caused many farmers to virtually abandon their cocoa trees, only investing the bare minimum of time and money in maintaining the crop. This neglect has exacerbated many pest and disease problems such as cocoa capsids, cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV) and black pod disease.

Major pest and disease problems

Globally, there are many hundreds of insects and pathogens recorded on cocoa. Of these, only a fraction is economically important, and this section provides a brief overview of some of the key problems.

Cocoa diseases

Cocoa diseases are a major constraint to cocoa production. There are a number of potentially serious diseases attacking cocoa, the most important of which in Africa is the fungal disease black pod, and which is responsible for estimated losses of about 44% of total global production every year. The disease attacks pods at all stages of their development. While there are several species of fungi that can cause black pod, two are particularly damaging economically: Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora, with the first one causing 100% loss locally in some areas of West Africa. Brown pod rot is much less serious than black pod, and is caused by the fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae. It is a secondary disease, which means it can only infect through a wound, or through infections caused by other diseases, and which can cause dieback (progressive death of branch tissue from the tip inwards).

Cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV) is another important disease in Africa.The virus is transmitted by sucking pests, mostly mealybugs. It affects leaves and pods, and causes stem and root swellings. Infected trees may suffer from severe defoliation and dieback, and the pods are smaller and malformed. In susceptible varieties of cocoa such as Amelonado, death of the trees after infection with severe strains of the virus can occur within 2-3 years, with yield losses of up to 25% in the first year.

In Central and South America, witches' broom, caused by the fungus, Crinipellis perniciosa, is one of the most serious constraints to cocoa production (considered to cause about 25% loss of the world crop). This disease halved Brazilian cocoa production in the early 1990s.The fungus attacks developing buds or flowers, causing them to grow abnormally, forming structures called 'brooms'. It can also attack young pods, which die soon after infection. The seedlings that grow from the seeds of infected pods may also develop brooms from buds, and often die during the first year.
Frosty pod, or monilia pod rot, caused by Moniliophthora roreri, is another serious fungal disease in the Americas. Damage caused by the disease varies from less than 25% in some regions to total loss of production in others. Most of the damage is done when younger pods are attacked, and the pod dies before it reaches even half of its potential size. The necrotic tissue on the outside of the pod becomes covered by a thick, felty fungal growth which at first appears frosty white, the symptom from which the disease takes its name.

Vascular streak dieback, caused by the fungus Oncobasidium theobromae, is a problem in South and Southeast Asia, and can potentially be very damaging to young seedlings (less than 10 months old). As the name suggests it attacks the vascular tissues of the tree, which transport water and nutrients around the plant. This causes leaf drop and new shoots of infected plants rarely grow more than 20 cm before dying. A characteristic yellowing of leaves is also seen. The vascular elements become discoloured by brown streaks, giving the disease its name, and the cambium, the layer under the bark, turns a rusty brown. It also occasionally attacks the vascular system of developing pods, although infected pods show no external symptoms.

Verticillium wilt, or sudden death of cocoa, caused by Verticillium dahliae is another vascular disease. An increasingly serious problem in parts of Brazil and has been reported in Colombia. This disease was responsible for the failure of widespread cocoa cultivation in Uganda in the 1960s. Chemical control of Verticillium wilt of cocoa is not effective as the pathogen is soil borne and the host a perennial crop; breeding for resistance is the only realistic means of durable disease control.

Insect pests

In cocoa, most of the pest problems are disease, rather than insect related. However, in some regions insect pests can be a serious constraint to production. In West Africa, cocoa capsids or mirids (Distanthiella theobromae and Salbegella singularis) are widely perceived as the most important insect pests. In outbreak years, especially in areas where trees have been neglected, losses can be up to 75%. In areas of Ghana where attacks are particularly heavy and frequent, local farmers have named it 'Sankonuabe', which means, 'go back to planting oil palm'. However, in most areas, especially where trees are well maintained, losses are usually less than 25%. The capsids feed on the shoots and pods, injecting toxic saliva as they feed. The toxins cause the tissue around the feeding site to collapse and turn brown or black. This provides an entry point for secondary diseases such as green point gall, caused by the fungus Nectria rigidiuscula, which can subsequently cause serious losses.

Other insect pests in West Africa include mealybugs (Planococcus and Stictococcus spp.), whose main significance is as vectors of CSSV, shield bugs, leaf hoppers and thrips. Elsewhere in the world, pod borers, for example the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella, can be very important, particularly in South and Southeast Asia. The larvae of the moth bore into the soft tissues in the pod wall, which provide the nutrients for the development of the beans. This causes the pods to ripen prematurely, and produce small, flat beans. In heavy infestations, the beans are often stuck together by mucus and in this condition, they have no market value. Pod borers, such as Characoma stictigrapta are occasionally pests in Africa, although their real significance is often through helping to spread damaging diseases such as black pod.

Parasitic plants

Mistletoes are parasitic plants, which derive their water, mineral salts from host plants and are a serious problem on cocoa in West Africa. They thrive in conditions of bright sunlight and low moisture, and are therefore a particular problem in young plantations established after the primary forest is cleared. These are also ideal conditions for many seed feeding birds, which are the main agents of dispersal for the mistletoe. Mistletoes stimulate abnormal growth at the point of attachment, resulting in a loss of vigour in the cocoa plant, the death of young shoots and a reduction in yield. In heavy infestations, the entire foliage may be replaced by mistletoes, and the tree may die and a direct result of the parasitism, or because it becomes more susceptible to attack by secondary diseases.


Root knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are the most important nematodes parasitic on cocoa because of the damage they cause and their wide distribution in cocoa producing regions. Other endoparasitic and ectoparasitic nematodes associated with damage to cocoa are Pratylenchus spp. and Dolichodorus. Seedlings are often the most seriously damaged by root knot nematodes and in nurseries, nematodes retard growth of the young plants and may even kill them. The transplantation of seedlings infested with nematodes carries the nematodes to the plantations where the transplants can die early in their growth. Symptoms of damage associated with root knot nematodes are dieback, stunting, wilting, chlorosis of the leaves and reduction in size of leaves. The nematodes induce root galls on both seedlings and trees in the field, producing patches of stunted young trees in the plantations or dieback and sudden death of the infested trees.

Sustainable pest management: an economic necessity

In the past, pest and disease management in some areas of the world has been heavily reliant on chemicals such as lindane (a highly persistent, toxic insecticide that has since been banned in many countries) at no cost to the farmer. There were some immediate benefits from this strategy -for example, high production for a year or so but these benefits were often short-lived. The insects became resistant to the insecticides.

Similarly, recommendations for the control of black pod involved preventive monthly treatments with copper-based fungicides (6-7 applications per year). With cocoa prices at rock bottom year on year, most farmers are not able to afford the recommended number of applications and the majority either do not treat their cocoa at all, or make only one or two applications per year. With no prospect of substantial increases in the market price, it is imperative that pest and crop management approaches are low cost and sustainable, if they are to bring even marginal financial benefits to farmers.

Options for sustainable cocoa production

Maintaining crop hygiene

Keeping the crop 'clean', i.e. removal and destruction of diseased plant material, is probably the single most important method for managing many key cocoa diseases. Removing and destroying harvested and diseased or infested pods from the plantation can substantially reduce black pod, particularly that caused by Phytophthora palmivora. In Southeast Asia, this practice also can also help to reduce levels of the cocoa pod borer, (Conopomorpha cramerella) in the subsequent season. In Ghana, cutting down and destroying trees visibly affected by CSSV, and their symptomless neighbours, is the most effective way of controlling this disease, although many farmers are reluctant to do this because it is perceived as a very destructive method. In South America, too, the close monitoring and removal of pods infected with frosty pod disease is very effective in managing this problem, although the infected pods need to be detected and removed at an early stage in the infection cycle. Pruning, and destruction of infested branches is also very important for managing a number of problems, for example mistletoes in West Africa. The origin of this sulphur remains unclear. Isolates of the pathogen from cocoa were able to infect common weeds found in Brazilian plantations and often, the weeds remained symptomless, illustrating their potential as alternative hosts for this pathogen.

Using resistant varieties

A number of cocoa varieties with resistance to various pest and disease problems have been developed. In Latin America, CATIE maintains the largest cocoa germplasm collection in the world and is currently engaged in several resistance breeding programmes. Efforts in West Africa have been focused on black pod and CSSV resistance. Often these breeding programmes need information about the pathogen population- the variation within the population (which strains to use to screen the plant germplasm) and also in the identification of the pathogen. Scientists from CABI Bioscience in conjunction with scientists from West Africa and South and Central America have helped develop rapid screening techniques for black pod, frosty pod and cocoa wilt as well as trying to understand pathogen variation and host resistance. The identification and development of cocoa varieties that are tolerant or resistant to capsid damage also has potential and could be incorporated into on-going breeding programmes for disease resistance.

Managing shade

The impact of some pests can be reduced by managing shade. Capsids, for instance, prefer sunny conditions and light shading (10 large or 15 medium trees per hectare), can help to reduce damage caused by this pest. Maintaining shade can also help to reduce weeds, both on the ground, and also some parasitic plants that attack cocoa. Maintenance of shade, combined with pruning, is also one of the most effective ways to manage mistletoes in Africa. Shade trees, particularly forest trees left in the field after the initial clearing of the land, also have a very important role to play in the conservation of the forest and associated fauna. In cases where all forest trees have been removed, fast growing, permanent shade trees such as Gliricidia sepium, Terminalia ivoirensis, Ricinodendron leuclotii and Spathodea campanulata may be planted. Food crops such as bananas and plantains, and herbaceous plants and shrubs may also provide temporary shade in young cocoa plantations whilst some farmers may chose to have agronomically useful trees as shade even for mature cocoa trees thus increasing income from their land.

Biological control

There is currently a great deal of interest in developing biological control technologies to manage diseases, and most of the work to date has been focused on Central and South America. There are two distinct approaches involved. On the one hand, non-pathogenic fungi can be applied to the trees to reduce the levels of infective spores (the inoculum) of disease causing fungi, either by 'attacking' the spores, or by preventing them from establishing themselves on the pod in the first place. In Costa Rica, CABI Bioscience and CATIE are collaborating in a USDA funded programme to assess the potential for using fungi from the genus Clonostachys to control frosty pod and black pod. In West Africa, CABI Bioscience in collaboration with scientists from CRIG (Ghana) and IRAD (Cameroun) are also using this approach against black pod. A commercial formulation of Trichoderma stromaticum, developed by CEPLAC in Brazil, is now available on the market for control of witches' broom. Farmers are using the technology enthusiastically, although there has been no assessment of its impact.

The second approach involves actually introducing a beneficial fungus into the tissues of the cocoa tree, in either the nursery or mature trees. The fungus has no deleterious effect on plant growth and development, but it helps protect it from disease causing fungi by attacking or excluding the pathogen directly, or by inducing resistance in the plant. CABI Bioscience is currently investigating the potential of several such fungi for the control of witches' broom and frosty pod in South America.

The potential of several natural enemy species for biological control of insect pests of cocoa is under investigation in many areas of the world. In Malaysia, considerable success has been obtained by using the black ant Dolichoderus thoracicus in controlling cocoa mirids Helopeltis theivora. In Africa, the potential for the use of the insect disease causing fungus, Beauveria bassiana, as a biopesticide against cocoa capsids is currently being investigated by CABI Bioscience and scientists from CRIG and IRAD.

With regard to biopesticides, there are still a number of technical, commercial and conceptual issues that need to be addressed before they can be used more widely.

Rational Pesticide Use (RPU)

RPU aims to reduce harm to human health and the environment, together with the expense of pesticide use, through improving efficacy of pesticides by improving the application, in terms of timing and placement, and by using biologically specific products. Spray application of pesticides (be they biological or chemical) is usually highly inefficient, and the techniques used by smallholder farmers for tree crops, including cacao, is often especially poor. Many farmers use knapsack sprayers fitted with nozzles that "squirt" the tank mixture onto higher branches; with the result that most of the liquid then falls back onto the ground and is wasted. CABI scientists are building a database on the performance of application equipment currently in use and are actively involved in trials Costa Rica and Brazil to determine effiecient application techniques for biological and chemical control agents.

The choice of control agents is crucial, and the use of biopesticides appropriate for cacao may provide ideal technical solutions, when effective products become available. In the short term however, answers are needed to the question: "What would we recommend if cocoa prices were to rise dramatically enough for farmers to want to use pesticides again?" Unfortunately there has been very little impartial research into pesticidal control over the past decade. It is probable that most farmers would resort to copper fungicides for control of diseases that are neither particularly effective nor environmentally sound. Since the days of high cocoa prices, much has happened to the pesticide market, including the introduction of whole new chemical classes of compounds. Perhaps of equal significance, the patents on useful active ingredients, such as triazole fungicides, have expired, raising the prospect of using products that were previously considered too expensive. In addition, systemic compounds have become available that are also being trialled by scientists from CRIG and CABI in West Africa.

The short to medium term RPU goal is therefore to assemble a "tool kit" of practical, efficient and safe solutions to key problems, and encourage farmers to adopt them.

Maintaining fertile soils

Although soils in many areas have supported the cocoa crop for long periods of time, there is often little or no effort to replenish their lost nutrients. Recent experiments in Nigeria and Ghana have shown that judicious use of inorganic fertilizers can dramatically improve production. However, relying solely on inorganic fertilizers has a number of associated problems. Firstly they are relatively expensive, and many cocoa farmers cannot afford to buy them. Also, the amount of organic matter in the soil becomes depleted after long periods of cultivation, and the soil can become acidic and unproductive. Mulching with organic material such as cocoa pod husks and the use of leguminous plants as cover crops, which also smother out weeds, are options for maintaining good fertile soils. Cocoa pod husks are an excellent source of nutrients, and composting them can provide a cheap source of organic fertilizer.

Developing sustainable systems

One of the important lessons of the last few years is that to develop effective sustainable systems for cocoa production, all stakeholders need to be involved in partnership. The literature is littered with references to farmers' apparent 'reluctance' to take up research recommendations. Much of this stems from a need for the research and extension communities to recognize and better understand the problems and constraints under which cocoa farmers operate. Farmer participatory (FP) approaches to training and research are fast gaining acceptance as effective methods of promoting sustainable crop management. FP training aims to give farmers the agro-ecological knowledge and the confidence to make their own crop management decisions, as opposed to simply following (sometimes inappropriate) recommendations. Farmers conduct their own experiments to evaluate or adapt new technologies, based on their individual needs and circumstances. The role of the extension officer becomes less that of messenger and more that of facilitator of a learning process. Greater farmer involvement at all stages of the research process from setting the agenda to interpreting the results allows for better, stronger relationships between all stakeholders, and ensures the research agenda remains in touch with and relevant to the needs of the farmer. FP approaches to training and research have met with success with cocoa farmers in Central and South America. In Ghana, a project to promote sustainable cocoa production is under development by the National IPM Programme in collaboration with CRIG, CABI Bioscience and other organisations.


Books and printed papers

Appiah, A., Flood, J., Bridge, P.D., and Archer, S.A., (1999). Diversity of Phytophthora species causing black pod disease of cocoa and implications for effective biocontrol. In: Research Methodology in Biocontrol of Plant Diseases with Special Reference to Fungal Disease of Cocoa. Edited by U. Krauss and P. Hebbar. CATIE/USDA/CABI. p99-111

Appiah, A., Flood, J., Bridge, P.D., and Archer, S.A., (2000). The Search for Host Resistance to Phytophthora Pod Rot Disease of cocoa, the problem of pathogen variability. Proceedings of the 13th International Cocoa Research Conference. 9th- 14th October 2000 Kota Kinabalu Malaysia. (in press)

Cooper, R.M., Resende, M., Flood, J., Rowan, M.G., Beale, M.H. & Potter, U., (1996). Detection and cellular localization of elemental sulphur in disease-resistant genotypes of Theobroma cacao. Nature, 379,159-162

Krauss, U. & Soberanis, W. (1999). A case study on the effect of biological disease control on the rehabilitation of abandoned cocoa (Theobroma cacao) farms under two shading regimes and with two application times in Tingo María, Peru. In Multistrata Agroforestry Systems with Perennial Crops, Jiménez, F. & Beer, J. (Eds.), Turrialba, Costa Rica, Feb. 22-27, 1999, pp. 116-119.

Krauss, U. & Soberanis, W. (2000). Biological control of frosty pod (Moniliophthora roreri) and other pod pathogens in Peru. Paper presented at the 13th International Cocoa Research Conference, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, 9-14 October, 2000.

Mossu, G. (1992) Cocoa. The Tropical Agriculturist Series, CTA,/ Macmillan, London. 103 pp.

Piper, S., Martínez, A., Hidalgo, E. & Krauss, U. (2000). Effect of formulation on population dynamics of mycoparasites on the surface of cocoa pods. Paper presented at the INCOPED 3rd International Seminar on Cocoa Pest and Diseases, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, 16-17 October, 2000.

Schroth, G., Krauss, U., Gasparotto, L., Duarte Aguilar, J.A. & Vohland, K. (in press). Pests and diseases in agroforestry systems in the humid tropics. Agroforestry Systems.

Soberanis, W., Ríos, R., Arévalo, E., Zúñiga, L., Cabezas, O. & Krauss, U. (1999). Increased frequency of phytosanitary pod removal in cacao (Theobroma cacao) increases yield economically in eastern Peru. Crop Protection 18, 677-685.

Waage, J., Vos, J., Krauss, U. & Williamson, S. (2000). Farmer-participartory, biological approaches; the key to sustainable cocoa production. Paper presented at the ICCO Consultive Group on Cocoa Economy Meeting in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 10-14 April, 2000.

Willson., K (1999) Coffee, cocoa and tea.: Crop Production Science in Horticulture 8. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.

Wood, G.A.R. & Lass, R.A. (1985) Cocoa. Longman Scientific and Technical/ John Wiley & Sons, New York. 619 pp.

On-line Papers

Anon (1999). Methodology workshop on biocontrol of plant diseases. A summary report.

Evans, H.C. Disease and sustainability in the cocoa agroecosystem.

N'Gorgan, K. Reflections on a sustainable cacao production system: the situation in the Ivory Coast, Africa.

Padi, B, Owusu, G.K. Towards an integrated pest management for sustainable cocoa production in Ghana.

Waage, J. Sustainable pest management in smallholder tree crops: farmers as IPM experts.

General Internet Resources

American Cocoa Research Institute (ACRI)

Biscuit, Cake, Chocolate and Confectionery Alliance (BCCCA)

CABI Commodities (an initiative of CABI Bioscience) (from end Feb 2001)

Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE)

Comissão Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira (CEPLAC)

Fair trade on line

International Cocoa Organisation (ICCO)

Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center: cocoa information system on pests and diseases

Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Sustainable Cocoa Growing


Krauss, U. & Hebbar, P. (Eds.) (1999). Research methodology in biocontrol of plant diseases with special reference to fungal diseases of cocoa. Workshop Manual. CABI/CATIE/USDA, Costa Rica, 28 June - 4 July, 1999. A list of contacts from which the manual is available is given in Appendix I.

Contact Organizations

American Cocoa Research Institute (ACRI)

Sustainable Cocoa Working Group

Winston-Salem, NC

Contact: Dr. Carol Knight, Scientific Consultant
Tel: (703) 790-5011

Fax: (336) 940-3493

Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG)

Private mail bag

International Airport,


Tel: 011 233 8122221


CABI Bioscience, UK Centre

Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey

UK, TW20 9TY

Contact: Dr. Julie Flood

Tel: + 44 1491 829 111,

Fax: + 44 1491 829 100



International Cocoa Organisation (ICCO)

22 Berners Street, London
Tel: [44](020) 7637-3211
Fax: [44](020) 7631-0114





Contact :Dr. Ulrike Krauss

Tel: + 506 56 1632 / 56 6431 / 56 0914

Fax: + 506 56 1533 / 0606


Appendix I.

A list of contacts from which the manual Research methodology in biocontrol of plant diseases with special reference to fungal diseases of cocoa. CABI/CATIE/USDA, Krauss, U. & Hebbar, P. (Eds.) 1999 is available (ACP Countries in Bold)

ADEX, Tingo Maria, Peru

Instituto de Cutivos Tropicales, Tarapoto, Peru

APPTA, Bribri, Costa Rica

IRAD, Yaounde, Cameroon

CABI Bioscience, UK Centre; African Regional Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; Caribbean Regional Centre, Curepe, Trinidad & Tobago

Malaysian Cocoa Board, Tuaran, Sabah, Malaysia

CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica

Mars, Slough, UK Almirante, Brazil

CATIE-MIP, Nicaragua

Ministerio de Trabajo, Lima, Peru

Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Vittal, India

Organic Commodity Project, San Jose, Costa Rica

Centre National de Recherche Agronomique, Abijan, Côte d'Ivoire

Penstate University, Pensylvania, USA

CEPLAC, Itabuna, Brazil

PNCB, Vitarte, Peru

CIAT, Sao Tome, Sao Tome e Principe

PNG Cocoa & Coconut Research Institute, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea

CIRAD, Montpellier, France

Scottish Agricultural College, Auchincruve, Edinburgh, UK

Cocoa Foundation of the Philippines, Davao City, Philippines

SENASA, San Francisco (Ayacucho), Peru

Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, Tafo, Ghana

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Barro Colorado Island, Panama; Panama City, Panama

Cocoa Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria

Universidad Nacional Agraria de la Selva, Tingo María, Peru

Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad & Tobago

Universidad Nacional La Molina, Biblioteca de la Especialidad de Fitopatología, Lima, Peru

CORPOICA, Colombia

Universidad de Panamá, Panama City, Panama

Darwin Library, Edinburgh University, UK

University of Agriculture & Forestry, Thuduc, Ho Chi Ming City, Vietnam

Pichilingue Research Station, Ecuador

University of Arizona, Tucson, USA

Indonesian Cocoa and Coffee Research Institute, Jember, Indonesia

University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago

INIAP, Estacion Experimental Boliche, Guayas, Ecuador

USDA National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, USA

Instituto de Investigación Agropecuaria de Panamá, Panama City

Winrock International, San Francisco (Apurimac), Peru.

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